back to Publications / Monographs
Monograph No. 9 (2010)
Classification, Natural History, and Evolution of the Epiphloeinae (Coleoptera: Cleridae). Part VIII. The Genera Acanthocollum Opitz, Stegnoclava Opitz, and Ichnea Laporte, by Weston Optiz. 65pp.
The checkered beetle genera Acanthocollum Opitz and Stegnoclava Opitz are redescribed and the genus Ichnea
Laporte is revised for the first time. The monotypic genus Acanthocollum contains A. melanurum (Klug). Stegnoclava
includes one previously described species, S. fumigata (Gorham), and two species describe herein, S. velatis Opitz, new
species, and S. zorropsis Opitz, new species. Ichnea is comprised of 14 previously described species and five new species. The previously described species are I. aequinoctialis Spinola, I. aterrima (Klug), I. digna Wolcott, I. dimidiatipennis
Spinola, I. divisa (Chevrolat), I. frenata (Erichson), I. incerta Gorham, I. lycoides Laporte, I. marginella (Klug), I. mimica
Gorham, I. opaca (Klug), I. plumbea Gorham, I. praeusta (Klug), and I. procera Schenkling. The species of Ichnea
described herein are I. acanthomelina Opitz, new species, I. atra Opitz, new species, I. callanga Opitz, new species,
I. gregata Opitz, new species, and I. gremia Opitz, new species. Seventeen new synonymies are designated: I. aequinoctialis
(= I. funesta Gorham, I. histrica Gorham, I. spinolai Corporaal); I. aterrima (= I. mexicana Thomson, I. religiosa Chevrolat,
I. vitticollis Kuwert, I. kuwerti Lohde, I. elongata Knull); I. frenata (= I. disjuncta Gorham, I. panamensis Gorham,
I. subfasciata Gorham, I. mitella Gorham, I. striaticollis Kuwert, I. confluens Kuwert); I. marginella (Klug) (= Enoplium
laterale Klug, Hylecoetus cylindricus Germar); I. plumbea Gorham (= I. helvolicollis Corporaal). The species of
Acanthocollum characterized by having a ridge of golden yellow setae on the upper sides of the pronotum. Species of
Stegnoclava have the antennal funicle extensively compacted, and in species of Ichnea the distal margin of the pygidium shows a distinct triangular, depigmented mark.
Like other epiphloeines, species of Acanthocollum, Stegnoclava, and Ichnea are thought to be predators of lignicolous
insects and highly involved in Batesian polymorphism. Two major lines of evolution are apparent within Ichnea, one
having evolved toward a lycid type of body form, whereas the other progressed towards a lampyroid configuration.
Twenty-one characters were evaluated phylogenetically and analyzed with WINCLADA, in coordination with NONA,
to generate a nearly completely resolved species-group level phylogeny. It is postulated that the progenitor of the three
genera evolved in South America, with subsequent ancestral stocks extending into Central America following the closure
of the Panamanian portal.
Monograph No. 9